Back in the Dark Ages (Yes, I know that term has changed but I don’t agree with it so I still refer to them as the Dark Ages) the Catholic Church was the dominant power both politically and socially in Europe. The power of the Church was unquestioned, and while certain rulers like Henry IV (Holy Roman Emperor, 1084–1115) had their disagreements (Henry actually apologized to Pope Gregory VII by standing barefoot in the snow while doing so), the church enjoyed almost unquestioned authority both in politics and in the everyday lives of the peasantry, those that made up the vast majority of the European population.